Published online Jun 7. Received May 2; Accepted Jun 5.
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Copyright © by the authors. Abstract Probiotics possibly affect local and systemic immune reactions and maintain the intestinal immune homeostasis in healthy individuals and patients with diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome IBS. In this single-center, blinded trial, we enrolled 40 individuals 20 patients with IBS and 20 healthy individuals whose dysbiosis ncbi and fecal samples dysbiosis ncbi collected before and after a day administration of a product comprising Lactobacillus spp.
We also observed a possible prophylactic effect by the inducing system antiviral impact accompanied by a trend for local immune tolerance in the gut in healthy individuals, where it is the desirable state. Keywords: Lactobacillus spp. Introduction The gut microbiota is crucial for the development of a proper immune system in the intestinal lumen.
Thus, the microflora plays an essential role in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis.
However, the growing prevalence of the Western diet as a part of the modern lifestyle may favor a transition in the microbial composition, leading to dysbiosis [ 1 ]. Dysbiosis is associated with not only gastrointestinal discomfort but also healthcare problems such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and obesity [ 2 ].
However, many other factors may influence the gut dysbiosis ncbi other than diets, such as environmental and genetic factors, smoking, alcohol use, lifestyle, stress, drug use especially antibioticsthe minerals contained in drinking water, etc.
All of these may disrupt the normal microbiome. In line with this, several animal and human studies have focused on manipulating the gastrointestinal microbiota with diet and probiotics [ 4 ]. Probiotics affect not dysbiosis ncbi local and systemic immune reactions but also exert various effects on the intestinal mucosa, including the barrier function and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides [ 6 ].
However, dietary fibers may exert host benefits beyond gastrointestinal health, including improvement of the cardiovascular system, diabetes, appetite control, and body weight. Nevertheless, due to their variable effects in the body, it is recommended to consume fibers from a variety of sources [ 7 ].
Arabinogalactans are a source of dietary fibers that may stimulate the growth of beneficial intestinal microflora and, thus, support digestive health.
While arabinogalactans are found in various plants, they are more abundant in the larch tree Larix species [ 8 ].
A combination of arabinogalactans and probiotics may exert synergistic effects and increase the efficacy of the microbial strains included. Lately, larch arabinogalactans have gathered considerable attention as clinically useful nutraceutical agents because of their potential therapeutic benefits as immune-enhancing agents.
In addition, these can exert their effect indirectly via microbiota-dependent mechanisms relying on the action of short-chain fatty acids Gomba jeco and directly on gut-associated immunity in the small intestine after passage through the gut-associated lymphoid tissue dysbiosis ncbi 9 ].
The existing concepts of the pathogenesis of IBS focus on potential alterations in the gut motility, small-bowel bacterial overgrowth, low-grade microscopic inflammation throughout the small bowel and colon, immune activation, visceral hypersensitivity, changes in the brain—gut axis [ 11 ], and disruptions in the gastrointestinal microbiota [ 1213 ].
In addition, gut microbiota plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS because IBS is more frequently láb szemölcs megszabadulni after an intestinal infection or antibiotics treatment. However, the beneficial effects of modulating the gut microbiota using probiotics in patients with IBS to improve symptoms have not been validated as an effective treatment because of limited qualitative evidence from clinical trials and, thus, remains an uncertain therapy option [ 1415 ].
Therefore, further studies are warranted in broad and specific populations, including different geographical regions, and over extended periods particularly because the current accepted therapeutic strategies in IBS are inadequate [ 16 ].
The effects of probiotics need to be verified as beneficial and with the accepted safety profile for healthy individuals [ 17 ].
Some recent studies have reported the biological and therapeutic efficacy of probiotics on healthy individuals and patients [ 618 ]. However, these effects are strain-specific and are sometimes controversial, necessitating further investigation to affirm their health benefits [ 1 ].
Moreover, recently it was shown that acid and bile resistance are incredibly variable depending dysbiosis ncbi the composition of the formulations the contained species and strains [ 19 ].
- [Oncological relevance of gut and urine microbiomes]
- Helmint készítmények
Except for the formulations and compositions, the specific features of the patients intestinal peristalsis, gut transit time, etc. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a day administration of a product containing Lactobacillus strains, larch arabinogalactan, and colostrum on the primary pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal mucosa and natural killer NK cells in the peripheral circulation in both healthy individuals and patients with IBS. In addition, we intended to assess IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL, ILA, and secretory IgA in fecal samples because of the constant interactions between the microbiome and mucosal surfaces, where the outcomes of these interactions could be evaluated [ 1 ], and NK cells in the peripheral circulation as evidence for the indirect effects of some potentially probiotic strains on these cells in the circulation.
Furthermore, we assessed differences between the study groups at baseline regarding some immunological parameters in the mucosa and peripheral dysbiosis ncbi i. Materials and Methods 2. Study Design In this single-center, blinded trial, we enrolled 40 individuals 20 patients with IBS and 20 healthy individuals.
All participants were asked to maintain a daily diary of their sensations or symptoms for the three-week study period. Our study protocol clearly specified that both healthy dysbiosis ncbi and patients should not take any medicine or additives, dysbiosis ncbi as antibiotics and commercially available probiotics, as well as agents that could affect the gut motor or absorptive capacity, including laxatives and anti-diarrheal agents, which could alter the intestinal function or flora, for dysbiosis ncbi least one month before and during the trial.
Dairy products and probiotic-containing foods, such as yogurt, were also prohibited one month before and during the study. Patients and health people were followed-up dysbiosis ncbi by phone and on their visits to the clinic.
All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. Subjects of the Study In this study, we enrolled 20 patients with IBS 6 males and 14 females; mean age, 37 ± 2 range, 24—52 years and 20 healthy individuals 7 males and 13 females; mean age, 35 ± 2 range, 19—66 yearsall of whom were Caucasian.
We diagnosed patients with IBS as per the Rome III criteria after conducting necessary studies to exclude physical, radiological or endoscopic abnormalities or laboratory findings indicating an organic disease. The exclusion criteria included any clinically significant systemic disorder, inflammatory bowel disease, immunodeficiency, prior abdominal operation, or pregnancy.
The healthy individuals were provided by Lactina Ltd. Among the patients, two were smokers, and among the healthy controls, four were smokers.
No participants took antibiotics, probiotics, laxatives, or anti-diarrhoeal agents at least dysbiosis ncbi month before and during the study.
No one of the study subjects dropped out of the study. Lactobacillus Blend We used a Lactobacillus blend, including five Lactobacillus strains previously selected as per their antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility [ 20 ].
[Oncological relevance of gut and urine microbiomes]
One capsule of the blend mg comprised i Each mg capsule contains mg active substances in accordance with the ratio It was an agglomerated, instantized, water-soluble, pasteurized, reduced fat, colostrum powder produced from colostrum collected only from the first milking colostrum. APS I dysbiosis ncbi processed both at low pressures and temperatures and was spray-dried using indirect steam to maintain maximum bio-activity. Each capsule of the blend contained million viable cells at the time of manufacture.
Specimen Collection and Preparation All participants collected their fecal material using a spatula in a provided tube. Every sample was immediately prepared after transportation to the laboratory. We prepared the fecal samples as follows: 1 g fecal matter was homogenized in mL of phosphate-buffered saline, followed by centrifugation at 20,× g for 15 min at 4 °C.
Before testing, all samples were entirely thawed at room temperature.
Dysbiosis and Inflammation - Connecting the Dots with Cytokine Profiling
Flow cytometry was performed in the Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, St. Ivan Rilski University Hospital. Results 3. Table 1 Total number and percentage of activated natural killer NK cells at baseline and after oral administration of a product comprising lactobacilli supplemented with larch arabinogalactan and colostrum in healthy controls and patients with IBS. Patients with IBS.